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B: Better start with the basics, what is the word for vegetable?
Y: It’s 蔬菜 shu1 cai4.
B: shu1 cai4.  Now let’s go looking for some. Where’s a veggie market?
Y: you may say: 哪儿有菜市场 na2er you3 cai4 shi4 chang3?
B: na2er you3 cai4 shi4 chang3?
Y: 哪儿有 na2er you3 literally means where have,
B: na2er you3,
Y: 菜 cai4 is short for 蔬菜 shu1 cai4,which means vegetable,
B: cai4,
Y: 市场 shi4 chang3 means market,
B: shi4 chang3,
Y: 哪儿有菜市场 na2er you3 cai4 shi4 chang3?
B: na2er you3 cai4 shi4 chang3? Where’s the vegetable market?

Conversation 1

A: 哪有菜市场?
B: 前面小区里就有。.

B: Wow, here at the market there are so many interesting looking veggies. Some I know, and many I don’t. Let’s learn some of their names. Those familiar red ones look fresh.
Y: You mean the tomatoes, 西红柿 xihongshi.
B: xi1 hong2 shi4.
Y: there is another name for it: 番茄 fan1 qie2.
B: fan1 qie2. And I’d love to ask, how fresh are they?
Y: you can say: 新不新鲜 xin1 bu xin1 xian?
B: xin1 bu xin1 xian?
Y: 新鲜 xin1 xian means fresh,
B: xin1 xian,
Y: so the first 新 xin1 is short for xin1 xian, which means fresh,
B: I see. And 不 bu means not,
Y: so you may ask the seller: 新不新鲜 xin1 bu xin1 xian?
B: xin1 bu xin1 xian? How fresh are they? Or are they fresh?

Conversation 2

A: 买点西红柿吧,很便宜的。
B: 新不新鲜?
A: 当然新鲜了。这是今天刚采的。

B: What’s that interesting purple, egg-shaped vegetable over there Y?
Y: That’s an eggplant, 茄子 qie2 zi.
B: qie2 zi.  and, next to it, they’re what we call Chinese cabbages, what do you call them?
Y: you can say: 大白菜 da4 bai2 cai4.
B: da4 bai2 cai4.
Y: 大 da4 literally means huge,
B: da4,
Y: 白 bai2 means white,
B: bai2,
Y: 菜 cai4 means cabbage,
B: cai4,
Y: 大白菜 da4 bai2 cai4,
B: da4 bai2 cai4,  Chinese cabbages 

Conversation 3

A: 你还需要买什么?
B: 茄子和大白菜。.

B: Now, to buy things, How do ask for how much are the tomatoes Y?
Y: Well for xihongshi, the tomatoes, we buy them in half kilo measures called jin. Remember to always ask the price first, you can say: 多少钱一斤 duo1 shao3 qian2 yi4 jin1?
B: duo1 shao3 qian2 yi4 jin1?
Y: 多少钱 duo1 shao3 qian2 means how much,
B: duo1 shao3 qian2
Y: 一斤 yi4 jin1 means half kilo,  
B: yi4 jin1,
Y: 多少钱一斤 duo1 shao3 qian2 yi4 jin1?
B: duo1 shao3 qian2 yi4 jin1? How much for one jin?

Conversation 4

A: 多少钱一斤?
B: 3块。
A: 便宜点儿吧。
B: 最低2块。

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